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Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the pangraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
The Art of Friendship
A) One evening a few years ago I found myself in an anxiety. Nothing was really wrong my family and I were healthy, my career was busy and successful -- I was just feeling vaguely down and in need of a friend who could raise my spirits, someone who would meet me for coffee and let merant until the clouds lifted. I dialed my best friend, who now lives across the country in California, and got her voicemail. That's when it started to dawn on me -- lonesomeness was at the root of my dreariness. My social life had dwindled to almost nothing, but somehow until that moment I'd been too busy to notice. Now it hit me hard. My old friends, buddies since college or even childhood, know everything about me; when they left, they had taken my context with them.
B) Research has shown the long-range negative consequences of social isolation on one's health. But my concerns were more short-term. I needed to feel understood right then in the way that only a girlfriend can understand you. I knew it would be wrong to expect my husband to replace my friends: He couldn't, and even if he could, to whom would I then complain about my husband? So I resolved to acquire new friends -- women like me who had kids and enjoyed rolling their eyes at the worlda little bit just as I did. Since I'd be making friends with more intention than I'd ever given the process, I realized I could be selective, that I could in effect design my own social life. The down side, of course, was that I felt pretty frightened.
C) After all, it's a whole lot harder to make friends in midlife that it is when yon're younger -- a fact woman I've spoken with point out again and again. As Leslie Danzig, 41, a Chicago theater director and mother, sees it, when you're in your teens and 20s, you're more or less friends with everyone unless there's a reason not to be. Your college roommate becomes your best pal at least partly due to proximity. Now there needs to be a reason to be friends. "There are many people I'm comfort-able around, but I wouldn't go so far as to call them friends. Comfort isn't enough to sustain a real friendship," Danzig says.
D) At first, finding new companions felt awkward. At 40 I couldn't run up to people the way my4-year-old daughters do in the playground and ask, "Will you be my friend? Every time you start anew relationship, you're vulnerable again," agrees Kathleen Hall, D Min, founder and CEO of the Stress Institute, in Atlanta. "You're asking, 'Would you like to come into my life?' It makes us self-conscious."
E) Fortunately, my discomfort soon passed. I realized that as a mature friend seeker my vulnerability risk was actually pretty low. If someone didn't take me up on my offer, so what: I wasn't in junior high, when I might have been rejected for having the wrong clothes or hair. At my age I have amassed enough self-esteem to realize that I have plenty to offer.
F) We're all so busy, in fact, that mutual interests -- say, in a project, class, or cause that we already make time for -- become the perfect catalysts for bringing us in contact with candidates for camaraderie. Michelle Mertes, 35, a teacher and mother of two in Wausau, Wisconsin, says anew friend she made at church came as a pleasant surprise. "In high school I chose friends based on their popular-ity and how being part of their circle might reflect on me. Now's it's our shared values and activities that count." Mertes says her pal, with whom she organized the church's youth programs, is nothing like her but their drive and organizational skills make them ideal friends.
G) Happily, as awkward as making new friends can be, self-esteem issues do not factor in -- or if they do, you can easily put them into perspective. Danzig tells of the mother of a child in her son's pre-school, a tall, beautiful woman who is married to a big-deal rock musician. "I said to my husband, she's too cool for me,'" she jokes. "I get intimidated by people. But once I got to know her, she turned out to be pretty laid-back and friendly." In the end there was no chemistry between them, so they didn't become good pals. "I realized that we weren't each other's type, but it wasn't about hierarchy." What midlife friendship is about, it seems, is reflecting the person you've become (or are still becoming) back at yourself, thus reinforcing the progress you've made in your life.
H) Harlene Katzman, 41, a lawyer in New York City, notes that her oldest friends knew her back when she was less sure of herself. As much as she loves them, she believes they sometimes respond to is-sues in light of who she once was. An old chum has the goods on you. With recently made friends, you can turn over a new leaf.
I) A new friend, chosen right, can also help you point your boat in the direction you want to go. Hanna Dershowitz, 39, an attorney and mother in Los Angeles, found that a new acquaintance from workwas exactly what she needed in a friend. In addition to liking and respecting Julia, Dershowitz had a feeling that the fit and athletic younger woman would help her to get in shape.
J) While you're busy making new friends, remember that you still need to nurture your old ones. We asked Marla Paul, author of The Friendship Crisis: Finding, Making, and Keeping Friends When You "re Not a Kid Anymore, for the best ways to maintain these important relationships. Keep in touch. Your friends should be a priority; schedule regular lunch dates or coffee catch-up sessions, no matter how busy you are. Know her business. Keep track of important events in a friend's life and show your support. Call or e-mail to let her know you're thinking of her. Speak your mind. Tell a friend (politely) if something she did really upset you. If you can't be totally honest, then you need to reexamine the relationship. Accept her flaws. No one is perfect, so work around her quirks --she's chronically late, or she's a bit negative -- to cut down on frustration and fights. Boost her ego. Heartfelt compliments make everyone feel great, so tell her how much you love her new sweater or what a great job she did on a work project.
46. Leslie Danzig thought making friends at one's middle age needed some reasons.
47. A well-chosen new friend can help you go in the direction that you like.
48. A few years ago the author felt lonely and depressed when she phoned her best friend in another city who was much wanted then but unavailable.
49. According to Kathleen Hall, one might feel sensitive in the first curse of making new friends.
50. Midlife friendship can help you realize your direction of life and reinforce the progress you've made in your life.
51. In Mafia Paul's book, to be a better friend, you should keep track with your fiiends, care for your friend's job, express yourself, accept her flaws and compliment your friend for her/his good dressing and job.
52. For the author, a girl friend might be the right person to under "stand her and erase her negative feeling.
53. According to Michelle Metes, midlife friendship is based on the shared values and activities
54. As a mature friend seeker, the author finds herself with enough confidence to offer and take rejection with grace.
55. With newly made friends, you can have a chance to take on a new look in your life.
C)毕竟，在中年时期交友要比年轻时困难得多一——这是个客观存在的显示，与我聊过的女性曾不止一次地指出这一点。41岁的Leslie Danzi9是芝加哥的一位戏剧导演，也是一位母亲，1461她的看法是，在十几岁、二十几岁的时候，除了有特殊理由不能成为朋友的情况，人差不多可以跟所有人成为朋友。 你的大学室友，至少余因为走得比较近而成为你最好的朋友。一现在，我们则需要理由才能成为朋友。Danzi9说，“有很多人，我跟他们在一起的时候很舒服，但我不会因此称他们为朋友。舒适度还不足以维持真正的友谊。”
D)一开始的时候，寻找新的伙伴的确让入有点尴尬。四十岁了，我无法像我四岁的女儿那样在操场上碰到人就问：“能跟我做朋友吗?”。【49】 每次建立一群新关系，你就会又变得脆弱了，”，KathleenHall，教牧学博士，亚特兰大压力研究所的创始人兼首席执行官，赞同这一看法。她说： “你是在问：‘你愿意参与到我的生活中吗?’这使我们局促不安。”
I)【47】新朋友，如果选择对了的话， 还可以帮助找到航行的方向。39岁的Hanna Dershowitz是洛杉矶的一名律师，也是一位母亲。她发现，她在工作中新结交的一个人， Julia，正是她需要的好友。除了喜欢和尊重Julia，Dershowitz有一种感觉，这个健康且从事运动事业的年轻女性能帮助她保持身材。
46.Leslie Danzig thought making friends at one’S middle age needed some reasons.LeslieDanzig认为在中年交朋友需要一些理由。
【解析】C)。细节题。根据句子关键词Leslie Danzi9和making friends al one’S middle age可定位至Cl段。该段中Danzi9说在十几、二十几岁的时候，基本上可以和所有人交朋友，但现在需要充分的理由才能交到朋友，舒适度不足以维持真正的友谊。可见她认为中年交友需要。一些理由。
47.A well—chosen new friend can help you go in the direction that you like.选择得当的新朋友能帮你朝着你向往的方向前进。
【解析】I)。细节题。根据句子关键词a well—chosen new friend和：he direction that you like可定位至I)段。该段首句指出：新朋友，如果选择对了的话，还可以帮助你找到航行的方向。
48.A few years ago the author felt lonely and depressed when she phoned her best friend in another city who was much wanted then but unavailable.
【解析】A)。归纳题。根据句子关键词a few years a90和phoned her best friend可定位在A)段。句子是对整段的概括总结。
49.According to Kathleen Hall，one might feel sensitive in the first course ofmaking new friends.
【解析】 D)。细节题。由句子中的Kathleen Hall定位至D)段。该段最后一句提到，Kathleen Hall认为每次建立一种新关系，人就会变得脆弱、敏感。
50.Midlife friendship can help you realize your direction oflife and reinforze the progress yOU’ve made in your life.
【解析】 G)。细节题。根据句子关键词midlife friendship和reinforce the progress可定位至G)段末句。现在看来，中年友谊似乎能反映出你所属的类型(或正在成为的类型)，从而加强你在生活中取得的进展。5 1.In Maria Paul’S book，to be a better friend，you should keep track with yourfriends，care for your friend’s job，ex—press yourself,accept her flaws and compliment your friend for her/his good dressing and job.Maria Paul的书中写到，要成为更好的朋友，你应该和朋友保持联系，关心朋友的工作，表达自己的思想，包容朋友的缺点，赞扬朋友。
52.For the author,a girl friend might be the fight person to understand her and erase her negative feelin9.
【解析】 B)。细节题。由句子中的the right person和understand等字眼定位至B)段。作者提到只有女性的朋友才能理解她的感受。
53.According to Michelle Mertes，midlife friendship is based on the shared values and activities
54.As a mature friend seeker,the author finds herself with enough confidence to offer and take rejecfion with grace.
【解析】 E)。细节题。根据句子关键词a mature friend seeker和offe“'ejection可定位至E)段。该段中作者指出自己已经成熟，能坦然接受对方的拒绝，也保有自信，相信自己有魅力。
55.With newly made friends，you Can have a chance to take on a new look in your life.
【解析】 H)。细节题。根据句子关键词takeon anewlook可定位至E段末句。而跟新交的朋友在一起，你可以翻开新的一页。Take on anewlook和takeoveranewleaf是同类表述。
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Eachstatement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
TV Linked to Lower Marks
A) The effect of television on children has been debated ever since the first sets were turned on. Now three new studies find that too much tube time can lower test scores, retard learning and even predict college performance. The reports appear in the July issue of the Archives of Pediatrics & Ado-lescent Medicine.
B) In the first report, researchers studied the effect that having a TV in a child's bedroom can have on third graders. "We looked at the household media environment in relation to academic achievementon mathematics, reading and language arts tests," said study author Dina L.G. Borzekowski, an as-sistant professor at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
C) Borzekowski and her colleague, Dr. Thomas Robinson of Stanford University, collected data on386 third graders and their parents about how much TV the children watched, the number of TV sets, computers and video game consoles in the household and where they were. They also collected data on how much time the children spent using the different media, as well as the time spent doing homework and reading. The researchers found that the media in the household, where it is and how it is used can have a profound effect on learning. "We found that the household media environment has a very close association with performance on the different test scores," Borzekowski said.
D) "A child who has a TV in his or her bedroom is likely to have a score that is eight points lower on a mathematics test compared to a child who doesn't have a TV in the bedroom," she noted. These children also scored lower on the reading and language arts tests. However, children who have ac-cess to a home computer are likely to have higher scores on each of the tests compared with children who don't have access to a home computer, Borzekowski noted.
E) The reasons why TV has this negative effect are not clear, Borzekowski said. "When there's TV in the bedroom, parents are less likely to have control over the content and the amount watched," Borzekowski said. "They are also unable to know how early or how late the set is on. This seems to be associated with kids' performance on academic tests." Borzekowski believes that content and the time the TV is on may be the primary reasons for its negative effect. "If the TV is in the family room, then parents can see the content of what children are watching," she said. "Parents can choose to sit alongside and watch, or turn the set off. A simple and straightforward, positive parenting strategy is to keep the TV out of the child's bedroom, or remove it if it's already there."
F) In the second report, Dr. Robert J. Hancox from the University of Ot ago in Dunedin, New Zealand, and colleagues found, regardless of your intelligence or social background, if you watch a lot of TV during childhood, you are a lot less likely to have a college degree by your mid-20s. In their study, the researchers followed 1,037 people born in 1972 and 1973. Every two years, between the ages of5 and 15, they were asked how much television they watched. The researchers found that those who watched the most television during these years had earned fewer degrees by the time they were 26."We found that the more television the child had watched, the more likely they were to leave school without any qualifications," Hancox said in a prepared statement. "Those who watched little television had the best chance of going on to university and earning a degree."
G) Hancox's team found that watching TV at an early age had the most effect on graduating from college. "An interesting finding was that although teenage viewing was strongly linked to leaving school without any qualifications, it was earlier childhood viewing that had the greatest impact on getting a degree," he said. "This suggests that excessive television in younger children has a long-lasting adverse effect on educational performance."
H) In the third paper, Frederick J. Zimmerman and Dr. Dimitri A. Christakis from the University of Washington report that, for very young children, watching TV can result in lower test scores in mathematics, reading recognition and reading comprehension. "We looked at how much television children watched before age 3 and then at ages 3 to 5," Zimmerman said. "We found that for children who watched a small amount of TV in the earlier years, there was co nsider able beneficial effect compared to children who watched a lot of TV."
I) For children aged 3 to 5, the effect was not as clear, Zimmerman said. "There were some beneficial effects of watching TV on reading, but no beneficial effects for math or vocabulary," he noted. "The worst pattern was to watch more than three hours of TV before age 3. Those kids had a significant disadvantage compared to the other kids." Parents should follow the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation, which is no TV for children under 2, Zimmerman said. "Personally, I feel the cutoff should be children under 3, because there is just not any good content for children under 3."
J) One expert believes that TV can have both positive and negative effects, but it all depends on what children are watching. "Content matters," said Deborah L. Line barger, an assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania, who co-authored an accompanying editorial. "Educational content has been found to be related to performance on school readiness tests, higher grades when they are teen-agers, whereas, non-educational content tends to be associated with lower academic performance."
K) Another expert agrees. "TV watching takes up space that could be used by more useful things," said Dr. Christopher P. Lucas, a clinical coordinator at the Early Childhood Evaluation and Treatment Program at the New York University Child Study Center. "TV is not necessarily toxic, but is some-thing that has to be done in moderation; something that balances the other needs of the child for healthy development."
L) Lucas puts the responsibility for how much TV kids watch and what they watch squarely on parents. "The amount of TV watching certainly has a link with the reduced amount of time reading or doing homework," he said. "The key is the amount of control parents have in limiting the amount of access. Get the TV out of the bedroom; be aware of what is being watched; limit the amount of TV watching."
46. According to Borzekowski, children having chances to use a family computer are likely to acquire better results on the different tests.
47. The reports issued in the Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescents Medicine find that watching too much TV leads to poor performance in school.
48. Watching more than three hours of TV before age 3 has bad effect on kids.
49. According to the second report, the chance for one to acquire a college degree depends on the amount of his TV watching during childhood.
50. In Deborah L. Lingbarger's opinion, educational content is helpful for teenagers to get better results on school readiness tests.
51. The environment of family media greatly affects children's test scores according to the first report.
52. Borzekowski believes that TV's negative effect on children's marks may mainly lie in what children watch on TV and how much time they spend on it.
53. Lucas thinks parents should take the responsibility to supervise kids' TV watching.
54. According to the recommendation from American Academy of Pediatrics, children under 2 should watch no TV.
55. Hancox thinks earlier childhood TV watching affects one's acquiring a college degree most.
E)Borzekowsk表示目前关于电视会造成这种负面影响的原因尚不明确。她说：“如果孩子的卧室有电视机，家长便不太可能控制孩子们观看的内容和时间。他们也不可能知道孩子们多早或多晚打开电视机。这似乎与孩子的学习成绩有关。”【52】 Bomekows】认为电视内容和观看的时间可能是导致电视机的负面影响的主要原因。“如果电视在客厅，那么家长便可以知道孩子所观看的内容，”她说。 “家长可以选择坐在旁边一起观看，或者将电视机关掉。一个简单、直接、有效地方式就是不要在孩子的卧室放电视机，如果已经放了，那就搬出来吧。”
H)在第三份报告中，Frederick J.Zimmerman和来自华盛顿大学的Dimitri A.Christakis博士认为，对于幼儿来说，看电视会导致数学、阅读认知和阅读理解的分数降低。Zimmerman表示“我们研究了孩子在3岁以前和在3到5岁之间看电视所花的时间的数量，结果发现与花许多时间看电视的孩子相比，小时候很少看电视的孩子有相当大的优势。”
46.According to Borzekowski，children having chances to use a family computer are likely to acquire better re-suits on the different tests.Borzekowski发现能接触使用家用电脑的孩子各项测试成绩一般更好。
【解析】 D)。细节题。根据句中chancestouse afamily computer可将答案定位于D)段最后一句话。可是Borzekowski又说，可以使用家庭电脑的孩子比家中没有电脑的孩子更有可能在这些科目的测试中取得更高的分数.
47.The reports issued in the Archives of Pediatrics&Adolescents Medicine find that watching too much TV leads to poor perform ancein sch001.《儿科和青春期医学档案》杂志研究发现看电视时间太长会导致学习成绩差。
【解析】 A)。细节题。根据句中the Archives of Pediatrics& Adolescents Medicine可将答案定位于Al段后两句。目前，有三项新的研究发现，看电视时间太长会导致学习成绩下降，妨碍学习进步，甚至影响在大学的成绩。这三项研究报告刊载在7月份的《儿科和青春期医学档案》杂志上。
48.Watching more than three hours of TV before age 3 has bad effect on kids.
【解析】I)。细节题。根据句中more than three hours of TV before age 3可将答案定位于I)段第三四句话。最糟糕的便是在3岁之前每天看3个小时以上的电视。与其他孩子相比，他们会有较大的劣势。
49.According to the second report，the chance for one to acquire a college degree depends on the amount of his TV watching during childhood.
【解析】F)。归纳题。根据句中the chance for one to acquire a college degree可将答案定位于F)段。F段整段的中心意思就是少年期看电视越多越不容易获得大学学位，反之亦然。
50.In Deborah L.Lingbarger’s opinion，educational content is helpful for teenagers to get better results on school readiness tests.Deborah L.Ling barger认为(电视上的)教育性内容可以帮助青少年在入学预备考试中取得更好的成绩。
【解析】 J)。细节题。根据句中educational content可将答案定位于J)段末句。内容很重要。教育性的内容与入学预备考试的成绩有关，有助于青少年取得更好的成绩，而非教育性的内容则往往导致学习成绩下降。
51. environment of family media greatly affects children’s test Scorcs according to the first report.
【解析】C)。细节题。根据句中environment of family media可将答案定位于C)段末句。我们发现家庭媒体环境与孩子不同的测验分数的表现有密切的关系。
52.Borzekowski believes that TV’s negative effect on children’s marks may mainly lie in what children watch on TV and how much time they spend on it.
【解析】 E)。细节题。根据句中TV’s negative effect可将答案定位于E)段，此段整段都在探讨电视负面效应的原因。其中一句尤为点题：Borzekowskibelieves that content and the lime the"IV is on may be the primary reasons for its negative effect.Borzekowski认为电视内容和观看的时间可能是导致电视机的负面影响的主要原因。What children watch on TV and how much time they spend on it是.content and the time的同类表述。
53•Lucas thinks parents should take the responsibility to supervise kids’TV watchin. Lucas认为父母有责任监督孩子看电视。
【解析】 L)。细节题。根据句中parents should take the responsibility可将答案定位于L)段首句。Lucas认为孩予看电视的时间和内容应该完全由父母负责监督。
54.According to the recommendation from American Academy of Peadialrics，children under 2 should watch TV.
【解析】 I)。细节题。根据句中Amcerican Academy of Peadiatrics和under2可将答案定位于I)段倒数第二句。Zimmerman表示家长应该听从美国小儿科学会的建议，不要让2岁以下的孩子看电视。
55.Hancox thinks earlier childhood TV watching affects one’s acquiring a college degree most.
【解析】 G)。细节题。根据句中earlier childhood和college degree可将答案定位于G)段第二句。一项有趣的发现是，虽然少年时期看电视很可能会导致没有毕业就离开学校，但是对能否取得学位影响最大的却是童年时期看电视。