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  Aging As Development

  Human life is a process. A number of psychologistshave attempted to identify the particular tasks thatmust be accomplished at each stage ofdevelopment. Successful completion of tasks at onestage means that the individual normally proceeds tothe next stage and a few set of tasks. It is notalways recognized, however, that there are newtasks for the aged1 as well as for those who are younger. Aging, in other words, is a new stagein the developmental process of life.

  What are the developmental tasks faced by the aged? Some tasks are similar to those of otherage groups, and some are peculiar to the elderly. In the nineteenth century, for instance, mostmen had no transition to retirement. Typically, a man worked until disability or death. Fewpeople had to deal with the "empty nest2" problem, since children either did not leave the familyhouse or returned there to live with their elderly parents.

  Today, when an increasing number of people are living into their seventies and eighties, thereare at least five developmental tasks facing the elderly. First, the aged must come to termswith3 the physical limitations inherent in4 their stage of life. They will no longer be able toengage in certain activities as often or as successfully as they once could. Second, havingcome to terms with the limitations, the older person must redefine the scope of his or heractivities. Third, the older person must find new sources for satisfying his or her needs. Thismay be particularly acute at the time of retirement for those who hold to the work ethic.

  A fourth task is to reassess the criteria for self-evaluation. Again, the loss of work is involved,for many Americans consider themselves worthwhile because they have a fulltime job. Thequestion the elderly person must face is "Am I a worthwhile person because of the kind ofindividual I am, because of the various qualities I possess, or am I worthwhile only as long asI can function in some kind of job?" A man who lost his job in advertising when he was sixty-one told the author that he could not find another job in his field. He has done some freelancework, but he still mourns the loss of his job. "I loved what I did, " he said, "and I resented beingthrown out on the scrap heap5. There are times when I think I'm just not worth anythinganymore. "

  Finally, the aged face the task of finding ways to give meaning and purpose to their 021 lives.This task arises throughout the individual's life. Many elderly people find challenges, struggles,and gratifications just as they did in their earlier years.


  Complete the sentences with the proper forms of the words given in parentheses:

  1. We are _____( gratification) to learn that you have won the scholarship.

  2. Your work in office has not been very _____( product) .

  3. Money will be paid half in advance and half on_____ ( complete ) .

  4. All railroads have weight and height _____( limit) because of tunnels, bridges and so forth.


  1. gratified 2. productive 3. completion 4. limitations



  人生是个过程。一些心理学者试图找出人生每一阶段必须完成的特定任务。圆满地 完成一个阶段的任务意味着这个人已顺利进入下一个阶段, 又要面对一些新的任务。然 而, 人们并不一定能意识到不仅年轻人有新任务, 而且老年人也有新的事情要做。换句话 说, 衰老是人生过程中一个新的阶段。

  那么老年人面对的发展任务是什么呢? 有些任务与其他年龄组的相似, 还有一些则是 老年人特有的。比如说, 19 世纪, 大多数人不会退休。那个时候的人常常会工作到做不动 甚至做到死。很少会有人面对“ 守空巢”的问题, 因为他们的孩子或者不离开父母家, 或者 离家后又回来跟年迈的父母同住。

  今天, 步入耄耋之年的老人越来越多, 他们至少要面对五项生活任务。首先, 老年人必 须承认这个人生阶段所带来的身体上的限制。他们已不能像年轻时候那样频繁地参加某 些活动, 也不会如过去那般成功。第二, 承认身体上的局限之后, 老年人就必须重新界定自 己的活动范围。第三, 老年人必须要找到能满足自己需要的新的资源。对于那些恪守工作 道德的老年人来说, 这一点在他们退休的时候也许尤为重要。

  第四个任务是要重新审视自我评价的标准。又要说到失去工作这个问题了, 因为许多 美国人之所以认为自己有价值, 是因为他们有一份全职工作。老年人必须面对的一个问题 是“ 我的价值在于我本身, 还是在于我身上有各种优点, 还是仅仅在于我能在某份工作中起 022 到 一些作用? ”一位在61 岁的时候失去他在广告业的工作的男士对本作者说, 他在广告这 一行已经找不到工作了。虽然他现在做一些自由撰稿的活儿, 但仍然为失去原来的工作而 闷闷不乐。“ 我热爱我的工作, ”他说,“ 我讨厌像扔垃圾一样被炒掉。有时候我感觉自己 已没有什么价值了。”

  最后, 老年人还要面对如何使他们的生活充满意义和目的的任务。这个任务贯穿了人 的一生。许多老年人最终找到了各种挑战、竞争和满足感, 就像他们年轻的时候一样。


  Campus Life

  An Apple for the Teacher

  American schoolchildren occasionally present anapple to the teacher. Obviously the custom containsan element of bribery 1 — you offer sweet fruit toauthority figures to “sweeten” 2 their disposition3. In school children's case, the apple is offered tomake their grades more favorable. Therefore, theapple has more or less acquired a corrosive4 reputation and maybe for this reason, in slangEnglish “to applepolish” means“to flatter or fawn” and an applepolisher is a flatterer.

  But the custom might also be explained as a fair payment for the teacher's instruction. In theearly days of public education, school teachers were not always salaried. Often they would bepaid in goods and services, offered by either the school, or the pupils or the parents. . ..Therefore, the occasional gift of an apple for the teacher in today's classroom should be awelcome reminder of the era when education was one -to-one and when teaching meantenlightening the students rather than identifying their rankings.

  Caps and Gowns

  For students, the most exciting moment may be the graduation ceremony 5: parents, relativesand friends are invited to the ceremony; all the graduates are wearing black square flat capsand gowns. They all await the president to announce in the end,“Now, please move yourtassels from right to left. ”

  The caps and gowns worn by high school and college graduates today are survivors of theeveryday dress worn by members of the academic community in medieval Europe. Themajority of scholars in the Middle Ages6 were churchmen, or soon to become so, and theirdress was often strictly regulated by the universities where they taught and studied. Thestandard clerical dress throughout Europe was the long black cope. The original preferencefor black was changed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, as such colors as red, violetand purple came into fashion; but by the Renaissance black was back, as the color blacksymbolized simple and plain, or austere way of life in the sixteenth century. With fewexceptions, modern universities keep that ceremonial austerity.

  The origin of the square flat cap, or mortarboard7 , is obscure, though it probably derives fromthe medieval biretta . Such a tufted square cap is considered the badge of the 024 mastership, and is later adopted by undergraduates and schoolboys. The term mortarboard does notappear in English until the 1850 s. The tassel that graduates transfer from one side to anotheras a signal of their elevation is an outgrowth of the medieval tuft. The tuft still appears onthe modern biretta, worn by bishops throughout the Church of Rome .


  Ⅰ. True o r false :

  1. Nowadays, American pupils always offer an apple to the teacher in order to get a bettergrade.

  2. In the early days of public education, schoolteachers were paid in money.

  3. In America, the caps and gowns are only adopted by college graduates during graduationceremonies.

  4. Before the Renaissance, the standard clerical dress was black.

  5. The biretta was considered the mark of scholarship.

  6. That the graduates move the tassel from one side to the other is a signal of elevation.

  Ⅱ. Questions :

  1. According to the passage, when you say somebody is an apple polisher, what do you reallymean by saying that?

  2. For students, when is the most exciting moment?

  3. After graduation, which side should you put your tassel, right or left?


  Ⅰ. 1. T 2. F 3 . F 4 . F 5. T 6. T

  Ⅱ. 1. It really means that he is flattering orfawning some figures.

  2. For students, the most exciting moment is thegraduation ceremony, especially the moment whenthe president makes the announcement.

  3. After graduation, the tassel should be put to theleft side.




  美国的学童经常会送苹果给老师。很明显, 这个习惯做法有点行贿的意味——— 给当权 者一些甜头来软化他们的态度。对学童来说, 他们送老师苹果只是为了得到更令人满意的 成绩。为此, 苹果的荣誉多少受到些损害, 而且可能就是这个缘故, 英语俚语“to applepolish”的意思就是“ 阿谀奉承, 溜须拍马”, 而“ applepolisher”则指“ 马屁精”。 这一习惯做法同样可以看作是对老师授课的一种合理报答。公立教育早期, 学校教师 并不总是拿薪水的。通常情况下, 他们得到的报酬是学校、学生或学生家长提供的实物或服务。因此, 在今天的教室里时常出现的送老师苹果的现象应该算是对那个年代的一种 美好回忆。那时的教育是一对一式的, 而且那时的教学是为了使学生受到教育, 而不是为 了区分他们的社会地位。


  对学生而言, 最激动人心的时刻莫过于毕业典礼。父母及亲朋好友都被邀请来参加典 礼。所有的毕业生都头戴黑色的方平帽, 身穿黑长袍。他们等待着校长在最后一刻宣布: “ 现在, 请将你的流苏从右边移到左边。” 今天的高中生和大学生戴的学士帽, 穿的学士服是由中世纪欧洲学院里学者们的日常 着装演变而来的。中世纪时, 大多数的学者要么是牧师, 要么将要成为牧师; 他们的着装经 常受到他们任教或学习的大学的严格控制。在整个欧洲, 标准的牧师服都是黑色的长袍。 13 和14 世纪的时候, 人们最初偏爱黑色的状况得到了改变, 诸如红色、紫罗兰色和紫色这 样的颜色开始流行起来。但是到了文艺复兴时期, 黑色又流行回来, 因为黑色代表了简约 朴素和16 世纪严谨的苦修方式。现代大学都少有例外地保留了那种肃穆简朴的仪式。方平帽或者学士帽的起源不甚了了, 不过这很可能是从中世纪的法冠演变而来。这种 植绒的方帽被看作是学位的象征, 后来被大学本科生和高中生采用。学士帽这个术语直到 19 世纪50 年代才传到英国。毕业生们将其从一边移到另一边, 作为一种晋级标志的流苏 其实是中世纪时的帽穗的派生。现代罗马教会的大主教们戴的法冠上仍保留着这种穗子。


  Section B

  Directions:In this section,you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it.Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs.Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.You may choose a paragraph more than once.Each paragraph is marked with a letter Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  Driver’s License Test Tips

  A.This article will provide you with some simple tips for passing your driver’s license test.Adequate preparation is absolutely essential,without which any number of driver’s license test tips will be redundant.

  B.Getting a driver’s license is a big step in anyone’s life.It gives an individual the luxury to drive a car anytime he or she pleases,as driving without passing a driver’s license test is against the law.

  For some people,the stress can be too much to handle and as a result they may mess up on the driver’s license test.There are some simple driver’s license test tips that anyone can follow,to be assured of passing the test and getting their driver’s license.

  C.The most important of all the tips for passing your driver’s license test is to be prepared.This can only be achieved by you through hours and hours of sincere and diligent practice.If you are not sufficiently prepared for your driver’s license test,all the driver’s license tips for passing your driver’slicense test will be utterly pointless and redundant.You can read as many drivers’license test tips as you want,but if you are not practicing enough,then all these driving test tips will be in vain.Enroll ing yourself in driving schools is advisable for this purpose.

  D.Now,if you’re wondering how to prepare for your driving test,the first thing you need to know is what the driving test instructors and officials are going to be looking for.The following are the qualities that the instructors will be on the lookout for and also the parameters that the scoring will be conducted on.

  E)Starting the vehicle:The instructor will be observing you right from the time you start the vehicle.

  He will note if you tum your head to look back and if you follow all the safety regulations that are required to be followed while starting a vehicle.Here are some tips on learning to drive a car.

  F)Control of the vehicle:He will pay close attention to how much control you actually have over the vehicle.Your abilities with the gas pedal,the brake,the steering wheel and other controls will be scrutinized.

  G)Steering:Not many road test tips stress on the importance of steering.This quality is closely ana.

  lyzed by the instructor and obviously if your steering is wayward(任性的),the chances of passing the driver’s license test are very slim.

  H)Driving in traffic:Keeping calm and avoiding panic attacks while driving in traffic is of utmost importance.Many people get extremely stressed and nervous,when they are in the midst of traffic and one of the very crucial tips to pass road test for driver’s license is to stay calm and composed when driving in traffic.Also read more on road safety and car safety.

  I)Traffic signs and lane discipline:This is another area that the instructors will be rating you on.Your ability to observe lane discipline and your recognition of the various traffic signs plays a major role in your passing the test.Keep these driver’s license test tips in mind to pass the test in your veryfirst attempt.

  J)Stopping:Stopping the car smoothly and at the right place is a critical skill to have.When the in. structor asks you to stop the car,the timing,the positioning and the technique of doing so are important driving test tips to bear in mind.

  K)Backing up and distance judgment:Your backing up skills and your ability to judge the distances

  between your vehicle and other entities will also be carefully scrutinized.If you cannot back up your vehicle satisfactorily ,parking would be very troublesome for you and a major source of hazard to you and to others around you.

  L)Hill parking:One of the essential tips for passing your driver’s license test is to master the art of hill parking.This is not as easy as it seems and can become a major source of anxiety in a driver.If you can display good skills at hill parking,it proves that you have developed good control over the vehicle.

  M)Arm signals and driving etiquette:Another aspect that you will be judged on is your efficiency at giving the right arm signals at the right time.Your respect for other drivers on the road and the amount of courtesy you show them also plays a part in your final rating on the driver’s license test.

  Read more about defensive driving techniques and tips and defensive driving courses.

  N)Drivers who are well aware and informed about all the rules and regulations that need to be followed have a beRer chance of clearing their driver’s license test.The primary goal of these driver,slicense test tips is to instill(慢慢灌输)a responsible and mature frame of mind in every individ.

  ual.These road test tips will be pointless unless you develop a calm demeanor and tmless you are aware of all the rules that must be followed while driving.

  O)Here are a few more basic drivers’license test tips that you should keep in mind when vou,re leaming how to prepare for your driving test.Always use the restroom before your test begins.Not doing so will cause more anxiety during the test.Memorize all the traffic signs and their significance well in advance before the test.Use your rear view mirrors efficiently and regularly.Ensure that you are well on time for your test and are carrying all the required documents and paperwork.Get adequate sleep the previous night and do not give the test with an empty stomach.Stick to the permitted speed limit.Do not drive too fast and do not drive too slow either.

  P)Passing a driver’s license test is not simple and unless you are well versed in driver education.You could face a lot of difficulties.At the end of the day,remember that the instructors also want you to pass the test,so do your best to stay calm and composed and believe in your ability to pass the test.

  This cannot be reinstated enough,but the key to passing your driver’s license test is practice.

  46.According to this article,the importance of steering is emphasized by not many road test tips.

  47.Your timing,positioning and technique should be considered by yourself when you stoD your test car.

  48.Some people may fail their driver’s license tests because they have too much stress.

  49.Hill parking as one of the essential tips for your license test seems easV.

  50.The tips in this article primarily aimed at instilling a responsible and mature frame of mind in you.

  51.In order to pass your driver’s license test.you should practice.

  52.Your driver’s license test begins in practice when you start your test car.

  53.During the preparation process,a few more basic tips should be kept in mind.

  54.You should sleep adequately the night before your test.

  55.A lot of difficulties could be faced if you are not well versed in driver education.

  48.Some people may fail their driver’S license tests because they have too much stress.


  【解析】B)。细节题。根据句中的fail their driver’S license tests可将答案定位于文章B)段第三句话,有些人可能没有通过驾照考试,是因为压力太大。

  49.Hill parking as one of the essential tips for your license test seems easy.



  50.The tips in this article primarily aimed at instilling a responsible and mature flame of mind in you.


  【解析】N)。细节题。根据句中primarily aimed at可将答案定位于N)段第二句话,flame ofmind为“心 绪,心境,心情”,驾照考试指南的首要目标是将负责、成熟的心境慢慢灌输给每一个人。

  5 1.In order to pass your driver’S license test.you should practice.



  52.Your driver’S license test begins in practice when you start your test car.


  【解析】 E)。推理题。根据句中begin可将答案定位于E)段第一句话,文中提到从你启动车子的那 一刻起,教练就开始观察你了。

  53.During the preparation process,a few more basic tips should be kept in mind.


  【解析】 O)。根据句中a fewmorebasic tips可将答案定位于O)段,keep inmind为固定搭配,指“牢记”。


  54.You should sleep adequately the night before your test.


  【解析】O)。根据句中sleep可将答案定位于O)段,文中使用的是adequate sleep,这里用的是副词形式。


  55.A lot of difficulties could be faced if you are not well versed in driver education.


  【解析】P)。根据句中driver education和a lot ofdifficulties可将答案定位于本文P)段第一句话。Be Versedin指“精通于”。想通过驾照考试并不简单,除非你很精通驾驶教育,否则你会面临许多困难。






5.大学英语四级仔细阅读训练 带答案

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