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明朝(the Ming Dynasty)初期,中国是世界上最发达的国家之一。为了弘扬国力、加强与其他各国的联系,明成祖多次派遣郑和出使西洋。1405年,郑和开始了第一次航行。他的舰队由200多艘船构成,所载人数超过2万人,包括水手、军人、技术人员、译员等,还有大量黄金和丝绸,用于交易和作为礼品。往返用了两年时间。郑和出使的一些国家随船派遣使者(envoy),并带来向明朝进贡的贡品(tribute)。郑和下西洋是世界航海史上的一大壮举(feat)。今天,东南亚仍有很多纪念郑和的建筑。
In the early Ming Dynasty, China was one of the most developed countries in the world.In order to transmit its national power and strengthen contacts with other countries,Emperor Chengzu sent Zheng He to the Western Ocean many times.In 1405,Zheng He embarked on his first voyage.His fleet was composed of more than 200 ships and carried over 20,000 men,including sailors,soldiers,technical personnel,interpreters etc.,and large amounts of gold and silk to be used for trade and as gifts.The round trip took two years.Some of the countries Zheng He visited dispatched envoys bearing tributes to the Ming court on his ships.Zheng He's voyages were a great feat in the world's navigation history.Today,there are still many buildings in Southeast Asia dedicated to his memory.
1.弘扬国力:可译为 transmit its national power或carry forward its national power。
2.加强…联系:可译为 strengthen contacts或者enhance communication。
4.郑和下西洋:即“郑和的航行”,可译为Zheng He's voyages。
6.纪念:可译为be dedicated to one's memory。
自隋朝起,封建政府开始从科举考试(imperial examination)合格的应试者中选拔官员。参加科举考试的人有两种:一种由学馆选送的学生构成,叫做生徒 (shengtu);另一种叫做乡贡(xianggong),由县试合格者构成。唐朝的科举考试一般由礼部(Ministry of Rites)主持。考生考取后,再经吏部(Ministry of Personnel)复试,根据成绩授予相应的官职。科举制度一直被多朝沿用,直到中国最后一个封建王朝—清朝。然而,明清时期,科举制度演变成严格、呆板的制度,阻碍了中国考试制度的现代化和科学化发展。
Since the Sui Dynasty,the feudal government started to select officials from the qualified candidates in the imperial examinations.There were two kinds of people taking the imperial examination.One was comprised of students chosen by academies, who were called shengtu; the other kind,called xianggong, was made up of those who had passed the examinations held by counties.The imperial examination in the Tang Dynasty was usually held by the Ministry of Rites.Those who passed the examination would be re-examined by the Ministry of Personnel and be conferred with relevant official positions according to their examination results.The imperial examination system was used throughout many dynasties until China's last imperial dynasty,the Qing Dynasty.However, during the Ming and Qing Dynasties,the imperial examination system became a strict and rigid institution which stopped China from adopting modern and scientific methods.
3.由…构成:可用词组be comprised of来表达,还可以用词组consist of, be made up of。
5.县试:即由县里组织的考试,故可译为examinations held by counties。
8.阻碍了中国考试制度的现代化和科学化发展:可理解为“阻碍了中国采用现代化和科学的方法”,故可译为定语从句which stopped China from adopting modern and scientific methods。