学习啦【资讯】 编辑：世芳 发布时间：2017-07-07 18:16:09
A friend of mine, in response to a conversation we were having about the injustices of life, asked me the question, “Who said life was going to be fair, or that it was even meant to be fair?” Her question was agood one. It reminded me of something I was taught as a youngster: life isn’t fair. It’s a disappointment, but it’s absolutely true. One of the mistakes many of us make is that we feel sorry for ourselves, or for others, thinking that life should be fair, or that someday it will be. It’s not and it won’t be.
One of the nice things about surrendering to the fact that life isn’t fair is that it keeps us from feeling sorry for ourselves by encouraging us to do the very best we can with what we have. We know it’s not “life’s job”to make everything perfect: it’s our own challenge. Surrendering to this fact also keeps us from feeling sorry for others because we are reminded that everyone is dealt a different hand; everyone has unique strengths and problems in the process of growing up, facing the reality and making decisions; and everyone has those times that they feel unfairly treated.
The fact that life isn’t fair doesn’t mean we shouldn’t do everything in our power to improve our own lives or the world as a whole. To the contrary, it suggests that we should. When we don’t recognize or admit that life isn’t fair, we tend to feel pity for others and for ourselves. Pity, of course, is a self-defeating emotion that does nothing for anyone, except to make everyone feel worse than they already do. When we do recognize that life isn’t fair, however, we feel compassion for others and for ourselves. And compassion is a heartfelt emotion that delivers loving-kindness to everyone it touches. The next time you find yourself thinking about the injustices of the world, try reminding yourself of this very basic fact. Youmay be surprised that it can make you out of self-pity and into helpful action.
Choose correct answers to the question:
1.The author thought of his friend's question as a good one, because _______.
A. he also wanted to know who held such an opinion
B. it made him recall something during his childhood
C. like his friend, he also thought life was unfair
D. he learned something from the question as a youngster
2.Surrendering to the fact that life isn't fair will ________.
A. keep us from making everything perfect
B. keep us from doing everything in our power
C. make us face challenges in the life bravely
D. make us know it's our duty to perfect things
3.The second paragraph of the passage mainly discusses _______.
A. it's nice to accept the injustice of life
B. it's nice to surrender to the life
C. we should not surrender to the life
D. we should not feel sorry for ourselves
4.In the last paragraph, “this very basic fact” refers to the fact that ________.
A. you should not pity for others
B. life isn't and won't be fair
C. sympathy is a heartfelt emotion
D. pity is a self-defeating emotion
5.From the passage, we can learn that the author's attitude to life is ________.
A. positive B. negative C. Self-pity D. indifferent
1.[C] 推理判断题。本题考查隐含的因果关系。第1段破折号后面的内容为隐含的原因，由此可见C为本题正确选项A没有原文依据，选项B与结论并无合理的因果关系，选项D对原文有曲解，原文是说这个问题使作者想起了年轻时候的往事，而并不是选项D中说的leam from the question。
2.[D] 事实细节题。本题考查复合句的理解。第2段首句中 do the very best we can 与第2句We know…it’s our challenge表明选项D为本题正确答案。本题最具干扰性的是选项C，其中的challenge在第2句明确提到，但是此处的challenge不是指挑战生活，而是指本句第一个分句中提到的“让所有事情完美”。
3.[A] 主旨大意题。本段第1句是主题句,理解这个同位语从句是关键,只有选项A表达了这一句的意思。要注意其中surrender的宾语是the fact that life isn’t fair,而不是life,这样就可以否定最具干扰性的B选项了。
4.[B] 词义推断题。本题考查this所指的理解。最后一段倒数第2句中,this very basic fact指的是本句的从句中的the injustices of the world,另外，短语the fact that life isn’t fair在文中反复出现，是本文的主题，因此结合上下文可以推出答案。其余三项虽然在文中均有提及,但只是个别细节,并非作者反复强调的中心话题。
Americans are pound of their variety and individuality, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform, whether it is the uniform of an elevator operator or the uniform of a five-star general. Why are uniforms so popular in the United States?
Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more professional than civilian (百姓的) clothes. People have become conditioned to expect superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears uniform tends to inspire more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the skill of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to lose professional identity (身份) thanto step out of uniform?
Uniforms also have many practical benefits. They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are tax-deductible (可减税的). They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes.
Primary among the arguments against uniforms is their lack of variety and the consequent loss of individuality experienced by people who must wear them. Though there are many types of uniforms, the wearer of any particular type is generally stuck with it, without change, until retirement. When people look alike, theytend to think, speak, and act similarly, on the job at least.
Uniforms also give rise to some practical problems. Though they are long-lasting, often their initial expense is greater than the cost of civilian clothes. Some uniforms are also expensive to maintain, requiring professional dry cleaning rather than the home laundering possible with many types of civilian clothes.
Choose correct answers to the question:
1.It is surprising that Americans who worship variety and individuality ________.
A. still judge a man by his clothes
B. hold the uniform in such high regard
C. enjoy having a professional identity
D. will respect an elevator operator as much as a general in uniform
2. People are accustomed to think that a man in uniform ________.
A. suggests quality work
B. discards his social identity
C. appears to be more practical
D. looks superior to a person in civilian clothes
3. The chief function of a uniform is to ________.
A. provide practical benefits to the wearer
B. make the wearer catch the pubic eye
C. inspire the wearer’s confidence in himself
D. provide the wearer with a professional identity
4. According to the passage, people wearing uniforms ________.
A. are usually helpful
B. have little or no individual freedom
C. tend to lose their individuality
D. enjoy greater popularity
5. The best title for this passage would be ________.
A. Uniforms and Society
B. The Importance of Wearing a Uniform
C. Practical Benefits of Wearing a Uniform
D. Advantages and Disadvantages of Uniforms
1.[B] 事实细节题。根据文章首句转折词yet后面的信息“尽管美国人很为他们的多样性和个性自豪，但是没有什么比制服更让他们喜爱与尊敬的了”结合核心词uniform及同义表达(hold…in high regard即respect),故选B。
2.[A] 推理判断题。根据第2段第2句“人们习惯性地期望穿制服的人有较高的专业素质”，故选A。选项D错在用superior来比较人了，文中用的是superior quality。
3.[D] 主旨大意题。根据第 2 段首句“they look more professional than civilian clothes”及尾句的反问“What easier way is there…to lose professional identity than to step out of uniform? ”选含有高频词汇 professional的D。
4.[C] 推理判断题。根据第4段首句中的“loss of individuality”进行同义替换,选C。
Congratulations, Mr. Jones, it's a girl."
Fatherhood is going to have a different meaning and bring forth a different response from every man who hears these words. Some feel pride when they receive the news, while others worry, wondering whether they will be good fathers. Although there are some men who like children and may have had considerable experiencewith them, others do not particularly care for children and spend little time with them. Many fathers and mothers have been planning and looking forward to children for some time. For other couples, pregnancy wasan accident that both husband and wife have accepted willingly or unwillingly.
Whatever the reaction to the birth of a child, it is obvious that the shift from the role of husband to that of father is a difficult task. Yet, unfortunately, few attempts have been made to educate fathers in this reconciliation (协调) process. Although numerous books have been written about American mothers, only recently has literature focused on the role of fathers.
It is argued by some writers that the change to the father's role, although difficult, is not nearly as great as the change the wife must take to the mother's role. The mother's role seems to require a complete transformation in daily routine and highly innovative(创新的) adaptation. On the other hand, the father's role is less demanding and immediate. However, even though we mentioned the fact that growing numbers of women are working outside the home, the father is still thought by many as the breadwinner in the household.
Choose correct answers to the question:
1.What can we know about fatherhood from the passage?
A.It brings a feeling of excitement to most man
B.It make some man feel proud and others uneasy
C.It has a different meaning for men who have daughters
D.It means a responsibility that men accept unwillingly
2.What does the passage say about the shift from the role of husband to that of father?
A. Numerous books have been written about it.
B. Not enough attention has been paid to it.
C. The shift is harder for men than for women.
D. The shift is a difficult but incomplete one.
3.What can we know about mothers from the passage?
A.Mothers get more attention and recognition from society
B.Mothers are innovative and demanding according to some writers
C.Mothers generally stay at home to take care of the children
D.Mothers should help fathers in their reconciliation process
4.Which of the following will the author most probably disagree with?
A. It's as difficult to be a father as it is to be a mother.
B. More books should focus on the role of fathers.
C. The father is still the breadwinner in the household.
D. Fathers are as important to children as mothers.
5.The author's purpose in writing this passage is to
A. explain why there are few books on the role of fathers.
B. praise mothers for their great contributions to the home.
C. criticize fathers for not taking enough responsibility in bringing up the children.
D. complain about the lack of social programs to help fathers in their role shift.
1.[B] 事实细节题。由第2段第2句中的pride和worry可以判断选项B是对该句的近义替换。选项A原文未提到。选项C曲解了原文第2段第1句的意思，该句中的“Fatherhood is going to have a different meaning”表示对于每个男人来说当上父亲具有不同的意义，而不是就琼斯先生而言。第2段最后一句表明只有部分人不情愿接受责任，因此在D选项men前面加上some才正确。
4.[C] 推理判断题。最后一句提到很多人仍然认为父亲应该负担家计,但从本句的用词如even though和still可以看出作者对这种看法并不认同，由此可以判断只有选项C作者可能不赞成。